Assignment 2: Discussion—Freudian Theory
Sigmund Freud, although one of the best-known personality theorists, is probably also one of the most controversial in the field of psychology. When starting to consider theories of personality, one must begin with a look at Sigmund Freud, as he was one of the first theorists to develop a psychoanalytical theory that was based on real-life patients and not studies conducted in a lab. Even if you do not agree with his theories, he is the starting point from which many other theorists have begun. Specifically, he was concerned with the development of the personality and how it created the neuroses he saw in many of his patients.
Research Freud’s theories using your textbook, the Internet, and the Argosy University online library resources. Based on your research, respond to the following:
Unfortunately, the bad press surrounding Freud and his ideas has led many people to ignore the good points he made; and there are plenty of those. Without Freud for example we would never have the concept of the unconscious mind, of Freudian slips or of dream interpretation. Of course some parts of his theories are a little off, but then considering their age that is surely to be expected? The key is not to ignore Freud then, but to read his ideas so that you can see how they can be used to help you understand yourself, but to take them with a pinch of salt and an analytical mind. If you are thinking of seeing a therapist then different approaches will work for different people, after reading this you can decide if psychoanalysis is for you.
I don’t believe it is necessary to shun Freud. He plays a vital role in one on one therapy. Yes, I use him in the present tense because in America it seems with time it becomes okay to copy someone else’s theories or work. We dissect and use what fits in our own theories without giving credit to the source. I feel Freud at least if not anything, has opened the door for a more expressive therapy. He gives psychologists today the opportunity to be open in their approach, stance and tactics.
One of the key concepts of Sigmund Freud’s approach to psychology (or the ‘psychodynamic approach’) is that the psyche is split into three separate entities. These entities are the ‘id’, the ‘ego’ and the ‘superego’, with the first and last being largely unconscious. The id is the childlike, animalistic side of our personality that’s driven by its sex drive and desire for gratification, food and warmth. This is then kept in check by the ego and the superego, with the superego being the opposite of the id – a highly controlling and anxious entity that seeks to act in a socially acceptable manner, almost like a conscience. The ego is then trapped somewhere in the middle.
Most famously though, Sigmund Freud described our unconscious desires as coming out in our dreams which he described as the ‘royal road to the unconscious’. This lead to the development of many pop-psychology books claiming to be able to interpret the meaning of your dreams. However this is actually an incorrect interpretation of Freud, who described the symbols in our dreams as being unique to us. For example, a pen might represent a penis for one person (Freud believed many of the images in our dreams to be phallic), creativity and expression for another, or just a pen depending on what the patient associates with it. It is then up to the patient and the analyst to together discover the meaning of the dream.
Dream interpretation is often then used in combination with ‘free association’. The idea behind free associate is to get the patient to react to a word by quickly saying the first thing it brings to mind. By going through this process you can then get closer and closer to what’s going on in the patient’s unconscious.
Another method used by psychotherapists to learn what’s going on in a patient’s unconscious is known as ‘projection’. Like the defense mechanism of the same name, here the patient is shown an ambiguous image such as an ink blot, then asked to say what they see. As the ink blot can be interpreted in a variety of ways, their answer it is hoped will provide clues into their unconscious processes and any issues on their mind.
Even art can be interpreted by a psychoanalyst as an expression of the unconscious whether deliberate or not on the part of the artist and arguably all art is a form of catharsis, or expressing things you can’t normally. Freud believed for instance that it was no coincidence that the Eiffel Tower resembled a giant phallus and believed for this reason that it was a ‘typically French’ monument…
Therapists can also aim cause the patient to project onto them, or to sublimate them for another person. This is the reason that the psychotherapist remains mostly faceless, sitting behind the patient out of sight and speaking minimally without reacting to what the patient’s saying. The other purpose for the couch set up is that Freud hoped it would recall for the patient memories of being in the cot. It is then hoped unresolved issues with the subjects’ parents might affect the relationship between them and the therapist giving some insight into childhood traumas or parental issues.
This is significant as issues that affect us in adult life are said to have developed in childhood specifically through our complex interactions with parents. These developmental points are also said to be what forms our personalities, with our personalities supposedly fully formed by adulthood.
As Sigmund Freud saw it, as we develop there are several ‘psychosexual’ stages that we go through. These are the ‘oral’, ‘anal’, ‘latency’ and ‘genital’ stages, where the child seeks stimulation from of these areas. For example, Freud believed that during the anal stage children derive enjoyment from excretion. It is then said that should if the child should experience serious trauma at this age they will become ‘fixated’, retaining the characteristics they had at that age. For example, an ‘anal’ personality might develop if the parents are too strict with their potty training, resulting in a personality that is strict with tidiness and gets anxious if something is out of place. Again ‘anal personality’ is a term that’s found its way into our every day vocabulary.
The most famous and controversial of these stages however is the ‘oedipal stage’. Here the child is said to begin to have sexual feelings for their opposite sex parent. Boys want to replace the Farther as head of the family and as husband to their mother. However, at the same time they supposedly fear and respect the father and believe they will castrated if they continue. Through this process they identify with the Father and this is how the superego is created.
While these concepts seem a bit far removed from reality, if we were to replace the word ‘sexual’ with something less extreme then there may be some value in the ideas still. Children do for example feel jealous of parents, just perhaps not because of sexual desire. Similarly while children do like to experiment at a young age, its probably not for sexual gratification. Perhaps then Sigmund Freud simply needs reinterpretation, as he has a lot of useful ideas as well as not so useful ones.
Not so useful ideas can be researched and it is good for business. It keeps people in wonder and may spark a “what-if?” Now, I am not saying to mislead patients, nevertheless, sometimes, we have to take a stand on our hypothesis and I believe this is what Freud did as crazy as this may sound. I feel he was fixated or obsessed with his work, or, figured dreams, childhood and parenting has a lot to do with who we become.
I have heard some of my friends say as we age our features resemble us as we were when we were babies. I began looking at senior citizen’s and saying to myself, “wow, I can see the resemblance” or picture this person as a baby. We have many theories and Freud just added debate. Debate is great for mental exercise. Plus, Freud stamped his name to psychology till the end of time. That is amazing! I believe we have a good percentage of people who would love to have made a difference in their general field and be remembered forever!
Assignment 1: Discussion—The Happy Optimist
Positive psychology is concerned with strengths as much as weaknesses. The positive psychology model purports that you should be as interested in building the best things in life as you are in repairing the worst. You should be as concerned with making life fulfilling by nurturing strengths as you are with healing pathology. One way to do this is to manifest happiness through optimism and gratitude.
Using the Internet, research articles and videos about experiments conducted by Masaru Emoto on positive psychology. When conducting your Internet search, use the following keywords or phrases:
Masaru Emoto’s rice experiment
Masaru Emoto: Messages from water
Masaru Emoto: Water consciousness & intent
Then, based on your research, respond to the following:
Explain what optimism is according to the positive psychology model.
Discuss the importance of optimism in positive psychology.
Describe the relationship between positive traits and optimism.
Discuss an aspect of your life in which you would like to increase your optimism. Identify how you will do this.
Provide an example of a person struggling with negative self-talk and discuss how it could be countered to reflect optimism.
Based on your research on Masaru Emoto, comment on why spirituality and gratitude are important to optimism and happiness.
Support your statements with appropriate examples and at least one scholarly reference on positive psychology.
Write your initial response in 300–500 words. Apply APA standards to citation of sources.
By Saturday, April 2, 2016, post your response to the appropriate Discussion Area. Through Wednesday, April 6, 2016, review and comment on at least two peers’ responses.
Do the following when responding to your peers:
Read all your peers’ postings.
Comment on your peers’ ideas about what optimism is and how positive traits assist in the development of optimism.
Comment on how positive traits can be identified and amplified.
Grading Criteria and Rubric
According to the positive psychology model optimism is taking a positive view, seeing what is available. It is important to have optimism in positive psychology because studies show that positive expectations about the future show a consistent pattern of relatedness to measures of well-being. The relationship between positive traits and optimism is a lower level of distress when facing challenging life situations (Baumgardner & Crothers, 2009).
I would like to increase my optimism after handing in my homework and thinking about the possible grades I will be receiving on the assignment. I always feel like I could have done better work and then I receive my grade and I do very well. I do not know why I doubt myself after I have handed in the assignment and I am waiting for the grade. I could increase my optimism by accepting the fact that I have done my best work and letting my past grades speak for themselves. My best friend’s daughter struggles with eleventh grade math, she is constantly saying “I don’t get it, I must be stupid”. This could be countered to reflect optimism by saying “this class is difficult and I receive great grades in all my other classes”. She can also get the extra help offered by her teacher, then she would understand what is being taught. She may even be able to provide help to other classmates who are struggling.
Spirituality and gratitude are important to optimism and happiness because a focus on strengths and an optimistic attitude can help an individual flourish in life and discover purpose and meaning which enables them to enjoy their life and experience more happiness. More and more evidence continues to prove that gratitude and optimism are highly connected with happiness (Argosy University Online, 2016). I am not sure if I have missed any points in this discussion, if I did please let me know because I really enjoy this topic! I love speaking on optimism;
Argosy University Online. (2016). Retrieved from www.myeclassonline.com
Baumgargdner, S. & Crothers, M. (2009). Positive Psychology. Retrieved from
Over the years, trait theory has been increasingly used by corporations in hiring and in career counseling. Research has shown that certain combinations of personality traits fit well with different career paths. Thus, personality trait tests for specific jobs can be predictive of both success and satisfaction. Understanding your own personality-trait combinations can give you great insight into your own strengths and weaknesses. With this understanding, you can work to grow your strengths and minimize your weaknesses.
In this assignment, you will explore your personality using a personality test and then analyze the results.
First, explore your personality preferences by completing Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MTBI). The full version of the test can only be administered by a trained professional; however, there are many online informal versions of the test which you can find on the Internet. You can search for the test using any one of the following keywords:
Personality test + Myers-Briggs typology
Record your four-lettered personality type after completion of the test and use the Internet to interpret your personality type.
In this part of the assignment, you will write a research paper that analyses your results. Do the following:
Mention your four-letter type and the URL of the Web site where you took the test.
Discuss whether this type accurately represents what you know about yourself. Examine the four spectrums and explain your answer thoroughly. Substantiate your agreement or disagreement with real-life behavioral examples.
Analyze what you consider the strengths and the weaknesses or challenges of this type. List three strengths and three weaknesses and provide a rationale for each.
Evaluate why this test could be a valuable tool for an employer.
Analyze how a clinician may use this test as a tool for promoting meaningful interventions in treatment.
Summarize what you have learned about yourself through this exercise.
Write a 3–4-page paper in Word format. Apply APA standards to citation of sources. Use the following file naming convention: LastnameFirstInitial_M4_A2.doc.
By Wednesday, December 23, 2015, deliver your assignment to the M4: Assignment 2 Dropbox.
Assignment 2 Grading Criteria
Evaluated if the four-letter type identified by the test was accurate and was justified with real-life behavioral examples.
Identified three strengths and three weaknesses of this type and substantiated answers with a rationale for each showing analysis of strengths and weaknesses of this type.
Analyzed why this test may be a valuable tool for an employer and a clinician with appropriate justification.
Evaluated what you have learned about yourself through this exercise.
Wrote in a clear, concise, and organized manner; demonstrated ethical scholarship in accurate representation and attribution of sources; displayed accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation.
Click Link Below For Paper
Note these papers on this site are only a guide! please reword work to prevent plagiarism. The papers are 100% graded and you must add your abstract for this course for extra full credit.
For those of you out there who have found such strong interest in the man or women who cannot seem to keep their hands off social media you should take this message to warning. Beware! May cause heartache and pain; There are many men and women who spend most of their time on social media. One of the most popular sites on social media that seem to have broken up so many marriages would be “Face book” What was for reuniting with friends from school and finding relatives became a curse to many in homes all over the world.
This type of social media displays men and women young and old to display their bodies Inappropriately and connect through very personal conversations. Most couples argue daily because they find one or the other on social networking exposing themselves are viewing photos of other half naked men and women. Keep in mind that when these couples hooked up with each other, most of the time it came from social media. If a man or a woman spend more time on social networking then with you, you should be concerned; there is a 50% chance that the more someone is on social media, they will lust, cheat, and possibly divorce you later on in the future.
In my opinion, why would you want to locate someone from the opposite sex to check on their status? I say this especially if they are not your relatives, a business partner, or an old best friend. Most would agree that those who engage on social networking sites are looking for something other than family. What becomes an innocent trial of searching friends and family turns into much worse once words are exchanged to a stranger that your mate may find appealing. I mention to couples quite often if you’re married it is not a good idea to join social networking sites like this unless you are promoting your business.
When you join such sites you are only setting yourself up for disappointment. Being that we are only human there’s some things we must do to prevent us from becoming divorced from our mate. There have been times I’ve seen couples out and about enjoying each others company, and the husband or wife cannot stop looking through his or her phone as they engage looking at social media comments. Under their breath the other party sigh’s as they sit at a table wondering when I will ever get time with my partner. This is a sad situation and something should be done about this behavior, what is worse is you can be in the same house and your husband or wife sits hours on a computer while their partner sits patiently to spend quality time with their mate. Husbands are up late till 3 am sometimes while wives tucked away in their beds sound asleep as they prowl the engine looking to commit infidelity.
Couples who come for counseling seeking to get help because they cannot communicate. All I have to say is “back away from the computer!” Then you will realize how much you are missing. It reached a point that couples would argue just because their wives or husbands said they spend too much time on the computer. In addition, ultimately lead to fights and later resulted in divorce. Sometimes an individual could be so blind that they do not realize that while they are on social media their family members need them the most. My advice is to please beware of this man or woman. I do believe that if they spend so much time on social media that they are not concerned of the well being of their relationship.
There were men and women who admitted that they needed help and that they had an addiction. They mentioned that they could not seem to stay off social media, and that social media was a major part of their lives. It is sad because just as social media is such a big part of an individual’s life. They have the same problem when it comes to infidelity. Many women and men are heart broken in marriages and relationships because they felt the pain of unfaithful men or women. It sucks to see good women and men suffer with bad partners in their lives. I find that this is a disease that has killed our society and the good people we have left are giving up on true love.
Is it fair to say that some men and women do not know how to be good husbands and wives? Infidelity is one of the biggest diseases since HIV was around. I feel that we have so many couples who are so blind to the fact that you have and will be cheated on in relationships and marriages at some point of your lives. Is it fair to say that we do not have strong women and men around anymore? It’s so hard to understand how men and women can be cheated on many times in one relationship and still believe that his or her spouse loves him or her. I believe that if you strike out once you may forgive and move past. The second time him or her cheats I could see maybe even another chance, but beyond three or four times! how could you feel that this is going to work?
Furthermore, how do you feel that the relationship is healthy for you? I feel like slapping a person sometimes who feel that they can work on a relationship that has been ruined from the beginning with infidelity. However, I also understand that we have feelings and our hearts keep us close to the person we fell in love with. There are individuals in our lives who have made a huge impact. I do believe that no matter how big of an impact that someone has left in our lives, we should be able to say we are worth more than gold and should not allow someone to destroy your heart and take away your joy.
In addition, I feel that they should not take away the motivation and trust for others who care about you that will allow you to find love again. I cannot say that when couples get married they will live happily ever after, my reasons are because marriage brings out more issues than dating. When you marry someone you are faced with being around that person for the rest of your life. There is no way to escape the mornings of waking up to bad breathe, looking at your mate without makeup and facing the other person who you are still angry with from last night.
Don’t be fooled to think when you marry someone that you have no need to worry about what they may do. Marriage to me seems like a cover that makes it okay to have sex and live together. However, it’s not always this type of thing; there are couples today who have been married and continuing to go strong at this point of their lives, but that does not mean they did not have to go through turmoil to get to where they are today.
Many women and men have these same assumptions that because they have been through such hard times in dating that all men and women are the same. This thinking process is exactly why so many individuals are not married or in committed relationships today. I would like to think of it as an individual scorned and now they are sabotaging themselves when it comes to finding true love. I cannot understand why so many individuals today feel that because they have had a bad experience with relationships that it means that there’s no one for them to love.
To be honest ladies, a man is going to be a man and a woman a woman; have you ever notice no matter what a man or woman does they do it because it’s in their nature. I say this because so many women think because their men does not pay attention to everything they do that they are with the wrong man, but every man has his ways and you will find this out more while you continue through life. Women complain that men seem to have a problem with the wandering eye, my question would be if a woman saw an attractive man wouldn’t they look? It is completely normal to appreciate what God put on this earth and it does not mean that your husband or wife wants to leave you for that person.
Let’s talk about the highly paid professional man who could live among the most successful individuals, they will still find themselves committing the sin of lust once they see a nice figure around. Most women believed that if I keep my man from going to some places I do not have to worry. To be honest, it’s not true! Most of these women with the sexy figures and pretty faces are usually working with these men or they are seen sometimes while he is riding home from his journey to or from work. If you feel you need to protect your man from places, it’s because he may not be that faithful man you would want him to be, or maybe you have a problem with trust from prior life experiences.
My point to all of this is a man will surprise you just as a woman will, most men and women would be amazed with the conversations your partner has with their friends or co-workers when you are not around. I tend to see often women and men angered after finding out things that were done inappropriately, which eventually was relayed back by a good friend of what their partner got caught doing the night before. This is why it’s extremely important to make sure before rushing into dating or marriage that you truly learn your partner. If you take your time, you may find that the person you originally thought was right for you are not. One thing I hate to see is someone who is hurt and stressed from bad relationships. If we learn how to be patient and focus on what we need in our lives before anyone else is a part of it, I honestly can say that we would most definitely be better off when finding love.
After talking to many couples about relationships, I found that there were plenty of couples who shared the story of moving fast into a marriage without knowing who they were marrying. This situation is quite disturbing to talk about especially when you learn that most couples who were married, remained in a terrible marriage so they would not be an embarrassment to the family. This is always a big problem when mom and dad has so much input in your marriage that you feel the decisions you make are based on them. For years daters have had the problems of going and telling their parents everything that goes on between them and their partners.
In result, they wonder why their relationships did not work out. It is none of anyone’s business of who says what in a marriage unless you are being abused. I just hate when couples fight and they find a need to run and tell the parents about their personal problems, this goes to show that they are spoiled, still wants the approval of mom and dad, and cannot seem to grow up and be a man or a woman in their own household. When you are dating or married, your personal business stays with you and your partner. Work on handling your own issues, keep others out, and then you may see that you will have a healthier relationship.
Poor little Amanda it’s only been a week and still she finds that her husband Fredrick is still sleeping with the woman next door. I am sure she feels hurt by this! So much that the idea of killing him and taking everything that he has is the best option. It is fair to say that Amanda is not thinking clearly; although this is the case, Amanda wants to take matters into her own hands and start some trouble between her husband and the woman she found him cheating with these last few months. Amanda calls her husband’s office and left a message that she would like to have a romantic dinner by the lake house in Deentown that they rented a year ago. Amanda hung up the phone with a devious smile knowing that her plan will all come together in due time. She then called the mistress and played as her husband’s secretary. She announced loud after hearing a flattering young girls voice on the machine saying, “Hi! You reached Stacey; I can’t come to the phone right now so you know what to do!“
At this point Amanda held her anger and said, “Hi this is Marsha Bell, I am Fredrick’s secretary could you please meet him in Deentown at the lake house on 65th street at 7 pm tonight. Be there or be square! Chow!” Amanda slammed the phone down and ran down the stairs from her bedroom to the front door. She then turns towards the kitchen and remembers, Damn! I forgot to pick up the supplies from the tool store. Amanda rushes out the house to her black BMW convertible. When she got inside the car she took out pen and paper and wrote her first note to herself for the day. The note read I am special, smart, sweet, loving, and kind I will do anything for my family even if it means killing anyone who get in the way of my happiness.
Amanda takes the note and slides it under the seat; Amanda cranks up the car and drives to the store to collect the materials that she needed. When she arrived she ran inside and grabbed a shovel, gloves, hoe, duct tape, handcuffs, hammer, nails, and wood. Amanda approached the counter, reached into her wallet, and pulled out a hundred dollar bill. Amanda threw it on the counter and told the cashier to keep the change. The cashier watched Amanda as she bagged her own materials and ran out the door. Once Amanda made it to the car she placed the bag of materials in the backseat and drove down to the Deentown lake house. Upon arrival Amanda noticed that she was the first one there and she had plenty of time to shower up, and put on something sexy for the night.
After about an hour of preparing Amanda received her first guest for the evening. Her husband Fredrick arrived with a lovely set of red roses and Amanda’s favorite wine. When he rang the door bell Amanda open the door with a smile on her face. She pulled her husband close and greeted him with a seductive kiss. He replied, “Someone is sure glad to see me!” Amanda said “Hi baby go near the fire place open up the wine and turn on some music, I have a very special surprise for you tonight”. Fredrick did as he was instructed and Amanda ran upstairs and prepared for the big event. After Amanda was finished setting up she called for her husband to meet her upstairs. Fredrick was anxious and was filling his head up with dirty thoughts.
When he made it up to the bedroom Amanda took his hand and pulled him close. She then undressed him as she discovered that he was extremely excited to see her. Amanda took a scarf and wrapped around Fredrick’s eyes and guided him to the bed. Amanda told Fredrick to lie patiently while she grabs some delicious strawberries. Fredrick replied “Hurry back my love I really want you”. Amanda went back downstairs turned the music up a little more. As she was doing this she noticed that Fredrick’s mistress was pulling in the driveway. Amanda saw that her plan was going well. She slipped a note outside the door that read, Come on in my love and go to the kitchen; make sure to put on the robe that is lying on the counter. Stacey read the note when she approached the porch and then she did what she was instructed after finding the kitchen.
Stacey walked near the den where she saw the well lighted fireplace and the rose petals lying on the floor. Stacy got excited as she felt that Fredrick was being romantic. She sipped a glass of wine and began to touch herself while thinking of Fredrick. Amanda tempted to go in to grab her at this time, but felt the need to wait when she discovered Stacey taking pleasure of herself on the couch. Amanda watched as Stacey took off the robe, laid on her back, and she stuck her fingers inside her vagina. Stacey thrust her fingers deep inside until she leaked relief. After Stacey had finished she stared at the fire as the logs crackled. Then Stacey noticed something strange, it was almost like there was a shadow standing behind her. At that moment she began to get nervous; Stacey turned slowly and before she could see anyone’s face she fell down to the floor from the impact of a bottle to the head.
To Be Continued……..
Disclaimer: This post is creative writing of fiction stories. These readings are not to be taken seriously nor to reenact behaviors from stories. These stories are for entertainment only for those who love fiction writing.
Mental Health Regarding Depression
Nursing Management for Depression
Registered nurses in mental health institutions are forced to deal with various mental health illnesses that have become more rampant in almost every part of the world. Among the many mental health issues that require psychiatric examination is depression (Segal, Williams & Teasdale, 2018). Depression is a mental health disorder persistent with low moods or general loss of interest in a person’s daily activities. In addition, depression causes a significant impairment or problems in one’s day-to-day life. After reviewing more research, it’s found that depression is a result of a mixture of psychological, biological and social distress that disrupts a person’s general activity.
After reviewing more research, it’s discovered that depression has a high relation to smoking; the amount of nicotine in the cigarettes causes or affects the brains’ neurotransmitter resulting in higher levels of serotonin. In addition, depression plays a major role in individuals who struggle with thyroid disease. The thyroid hormone struggles to act as a neurotransmitter hence failing to regulate serotonin levels. These factors cause a general change in the functioning of the brain that includes altering activities of the neuron circuits in a patient’s brain.
The persistent loss of interests in a person’s daily activities, as well as the general low mood, may lead to certain physical and behavioral symptoms that may include changes in appetite or a person’s concentration. In extreme circumstance, some of the patients experiencing depressed moods exhibit suicidal tendencies. In essence, depression is a serious mental illness that affects how a person feels, thinks or acts. This document discusses how a registered nurse can manage depression based on community resources.
There are various ways that registered nurses could use to address mental health illnesses such as depression. For instance, if the patient is based in Florida, specifically in Pinellas County, the facility offers twenty-four hour emergency screenings, crisis intervention as well as suicidal hotline. Once the patient is brought to the mental health facility, the registered nurse practitioner will diagnose or examine him or her to identify the exact mental health problem that he or she could be suffering from. Soon after this has been done, the nurse can or may opt for community health services where the patient can be visited at his or her residence to check on how he or she is progressing (Segal et al., 2018).
The registered nurse with the help of the mental health facility within the community can institute psychosocial intervention as well the combination of antidepressants with the guidance of a qualified mental health practitioner to help the patient in recovering from his or her current mental state. The reason for adopting a home-based health care program for patients suffering from depression is to ensure, that he or she receives the best attention by the most qualified nurses. The nurses selected will have the potential of accessing and delivering depression care management to patients. One can use such psychological treatment as cognitive behavioral therapy to treat or manage depression.
This works well compared to the use of antidepressants which may have negative effects on the patient. Here, as a qualified registered nurse, I will use a mental tool kit with the guidance of a doctor to challenge any negative thoughts or feeling that the patient may be experiencing. This will help the patient change the way he or she sees the world around her and have a new perception of things. Moreover, the reason as to why I would use a cognitive behavioral therapy is that it is useful in reducing or preventing depression lapses that may make a patient take too long to recover (Segal, Williams & Teasdale, 2018).
Furthermore, it’s effective in improving the patient’s condition from mild depression to moderate depression. However, when psychological treatments fail to yield fruits, the registered nurse may administer anti-depressants prescribed by a doctor for the patient alongside psychological treatments for a patient who experiences severe depression. It is evident that using a medical treatment such as antidepressants helps in reducing several symptoms including fatigue or poor low self-esteem that is associated with depression. This would, therefore, require the nurse administer mood stabilizers as well as antipsychotic medicines obtained from PEMHS with the doctor’s prescription to help in addressing the situation. However, the patient would need to be informed of the fact that the antidepressants take approximately two weeks before they can react and help the patient.
On the basis of community health resources such as Windmoor hospital which is a mental health institution based in Pinellas Park, Florida, one can use this facility in managing the mental health conditions such as depression. As a registered nurse, I will be able to manage the mental health condition by requiring the patient to visit the Windmoor hospital for examination to identify the exact mental health problem (Beard, Stein, Hearon, Lee, Hsu & Björgvinsson, 2016). Once the condition has been positively identified, a doctor may recommend a psychotherapy treatment to assist in the management of depression.
However, a psychotherapy treatment plan can only be administered by a registered nurse with credentials in advanced nursing practice. This is a talk therapy with the patient to help him identify or figure out what exactly could have caused the depression and how best to help the patient feel better. The idea behind the talk therapy is to help the patient track his or her moods and begin practicing new ways of reacting to people and whatever happens to him or her in the surrounding environment. In order to help the patient feel better, I will educate him on the need to keep his appointment and practice the exercise that the doctor would have recommended to him. However, in the most unlikely event that the condition is too severe, Windmoor hospital has the best treatment for depression (Bogner, Joo, Hwang, Morales, Bruce, Reynolds & Gallo, 2016).
Therefore, I would administer medical treatment along with psychotherapy based on the doctor’s prescription. The patient would be required to book an extended appointment to have an extended opportunity for a wider consultation. Once this has been achieved, the patient will be given the antidepressants to help fight the effects of depression. However, this will be prescribed alongside the psychotherapy treatment so as to bring about a quick effect and the much-needed recovery. More importantly, the type of antidepressant medication to be prescribed will base on the consultation with a doctor.
There are several natural remedies for combating the depression that I may use in order to have a cheaper treatment plan for the patient if it is found out that he cannot afford to pay for both cognitive behavioral therapy and medical treatment. Moreover, some people are of the opinion that sadness does not and should not be subjected to medical treatment. Therefore, the doctor may make recommendations that require the patient to consider such things that make him or her feel depressed because it is obvious that depression comes as a result of circumstances in a person’s life. Once the recommendation is in place, I will make a follow-up appointment to ensure that the patient adheres to the plan to avoid depressed feelings or make efforts to move away from such triggers.
After getting guidance from the doctor, I will ask the patient to have enough exercise (Segal, Williams & Teasdale, 2018). It is important to realize that exercise releases endorphin that is responsible for making a person happy which is a natural antidepressant. On the other hand, I will read the recommendation thoroughly to be in a position of advising the patient need to eat plenty of serotonin-enhancing foods. This is because medics use antidepressants to prevent the uptake of serotonin in the brain, thus increasing the level of serotonin. Therefore, such foods as coconut oil and omega 3 fatty acids will play an important part in increasing the level of the serotonin level in the brain of the patient. To add on these, I would recommend to the patient that he ought to make frequent visits to a psychiatrist so that he can speak out about how he or she feels.
In conclusion, depression is a mental health disorder that is persistent with low moods or a general loss of interest in a person’s daily activities. If not addressed in time, the patient may have some suicidal tendencies. The best way to manage and treat depression is by using psychotherapy treatment which may be backed up by medical treatment using antidepressants based on the consultation with the doctor.
Beard, C., Stein, A. T., Hearon, B. A., Lee, J., Hsu, K. J., & Björgvinsson, T. (2016). Predictors of depression treatment response in an intensive CBT partial hospital. Journal of clinical psychology, 72(4), 297-310.
Bogner, H. R., Joo, J. H., Hwang, S., Morales, K. H., Bruce, M. L., Reynolds, C. F., & Gallo, J. J. (2016). Does a depression management program decrease mortality in older adults with specific medical conditions in primary care? An exploratory analysis. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 64(1), 126-131.
Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M. G., & Teasdale, J. D. (2018). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression. Guilford Publications.
This module taught you that considering the whole person when diagnosing is a vital component of the diagnostic and treatment process. However, before a counselor can assess a person, it is important for him or her to consider all the factors that can potentially influence the diagnosis; in other words, the counselor must understand how to utilize an integrative approach and why this multidimensional approach is beneficial. For example, a client comes in for an assessment, complaining of irritability; however, you do not assess for potential medical conditions that could influence the diagnostic process. You provide counseling, but the counseling does not work because the person has a medical condition, Diabetes Mellitus Type I, that was not stabilized. In this instance, you would have attempted to treat a medical condition with mental health treatment. When situations such as these arise, a counselor must be aware of the different factors that can influence symptoms presentation in order to effectively diagnose and treat individuals.
To ethically diagnose a client, the assessment process needs to be comprehensive and integrate all factors that may influence the diagnostic process. A counselor should always be mindful of the impact a diagnostic label can have on a person and discuss this with the client. In addition, a counselor must be aware of the pros and cons associated with diagnostic labeling and the roles of emotion and stress. This assignment will explore the use of a multidimensional approach, the differences in the types of classification systems used by the DSM, and the roles of emotions and stress in psychopathology.
In a minimum of 300 words, post to the Discussion Area your responses to the following:
Advantages and Disadvantages of Psychiatric Diagnosing and Mental Illness Labeling
There has been a great discussion concerning the pros and cons of psychiatric diagnosing and mental illness labels. Psychiatric diagnosis involves defining the symptoms of a mental illness as listed in the Diagnosis Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (Ben-Zeev, Young, & Corrigan, 2010). Mental illness labeling involves giving labels to people who look for help with their mental health problems. One advantage of diagnosis is that it helps ensure that the patient receives the best and helpful treatment despite his/her geographic location, ability to pay or even social class. One benefit of diagnosing and labeling is that the psychiatrist is able to communicate with the patient what is happening and this allows the patient to seek treatment. On the other hand, one of the main disadvantages is that it creates stigmatization. Labeling the patients with mental health makes other people view them as different and can cause the patient not to seek help. The diagnosis has been proved to give a false impression of certainty because e the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual has a lot of drawbacks.
During diagnosis process, it is important for the psychiatrist to put into consideration the multidimensional model of the patient. They should take into account the psychological, biological, and social disorders. Before diagnosing and labeling any mental illness, it is important for one to check the multidimensional characteristics of the patient. There are changes occurring in the body of the patient. This may involve mental where he/she stops functioning normally. These three factors of multidimensional perspective are closely related to each other as biological changes cause psychological changes which may, in turn, cause socioemotional changes in the patient’s body.
Role and Influence of Stress and Emotions on Medical Conditions
Scientists have proved that stress has a great influence on one’s mood, one’s sense of well-being, health and behaviour. When one is stressed, the immune system of the body is unable to fight off the antigens in the body (Folkman, 2013). This is one of the major reasons that one is more prone to infections when stressed. Stress has a great effect on the digestive system as it reduces the digestive activity. This affects the digestive health system leading to ulcers. Stress causes increased heart rate causing high blood pressure. This clear that stress has a great effect on the medical conditions of a person.
Ben-Zeev, D., Young, M. A., & Corrigan, P. W. (2010). DSM-V and the stigma of mental illness. Journal of Mental Health, 19(4), 318-327.
Folkman, S. (2013). Stress: appraisal and coping. In Encyclopedia of behavioral medicine (pp. 1913-1915). Springer, New York, NY
Assignment 1: Discussion Assignment
In this module, you learned about assessment and diagnosis using the DSM-5. Understanding how to appropriately record a diagnosis and to use specifiers provides a dimensional diagnostic perspective while also allowing the client to participate in the diagnostic process. One of the most important factors related to diagnosing is being able to provide rationales for the diagnoses you assign. A good clinician can always provide the reasons why the client met the criteria for a specific diagnosis and determine the duration, onset, and severity of the condition. Cultural and developmental factors must also be assessed and considered when developing a client’s diagnosis.
Review the following resources:
F33.2 Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent episode, with Moderate Anxious Distress
F60.3 Borderline Personality Disorder
Z63.5 Disruption of Family by Separation or Divorce
Z56.9 More problems related to Employment
In accordance with DSM-5 diagnostic standards, Chris is an adult; He reported severe symptoms of depression, anxiety, and personality functioning. He additionally reported moderate symptoms of suicidal thoughts, memory, and repetitive thoughts and actions and slight symptoms of sleep problems. He mentioned that he could sleep longer if need be; In accordance with DSM-5 diagnostic standards, Chris was also administered the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0). He reported severe symptoms with understanding and communicating, getting along with others. He had to be motivated by siblings to move forward with activities; however, he did not feel like doing anything but sleeping. In addition, Chris stated that he struggled with extreme symptoms with life activities at work and participation in society.
When reviewing Chris state I have found that Chris symptoms consistent with major depressive disorder, recurrent episode, with moderate anxious distress. Nearly every day, he experiences a depressed mood most of the day, marked diminished pleasure in all activities, weight gain, hypersonic, psychomotor agitation, fatigue, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished ability to think or concentrate. The symptoms are recurring after a similar episode three years prior. Moderate anxious distress is what is noticed with Chris. He also explains that he has difficulty concentrating because of worry, and fears that something awful will happen during most of days of this major depressive episode. Chris mentions several times during the session that he is miserable, constantly worries, and feels sad, hopeless, and horrible. He experiences daily crying spells, reports that he does not want to do anything or go anywhere, and he has gained 10 pounds in six weeks, and is restless and cannot sit still.
It is understandable that Chris struggles through each day, is constantly tired, lacks motivation, and could sleep from 16-24 hours per day. He feels he is a “loser,” that no one will love him and that no one will hire him. He states that everything he touches dissolves and that he is a disappointment to everyone and cannot do anything right. He reports that his difficulties at work and possibly his relationship stem from a lack of ability to concentrate and perform.
All that Chris has mentioned are symptoms causing significant distress and impairment in social and occupational areas of functioning and is not attributable to the physiological effects of a substance or other medical condition (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013). The occurrence of this episode is not attributable to the schizophrenia spectrum or other psychotic disorder and there has never been a manic episode (APA, 2013).
Chris also reports symptoms consistent with borderline personality disorder. He reports a pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships and self-image, as indicated by frantic efforts to avoid abandonment, a pattern of unstable and intense interpersonal relationships, identity disturbance, suicidal behavior, chronic feelings of emptiness, and transient, stress-related paranoid ideation. During intake, Chris reported that he has unstable relationships with his brothers; during the current session, he states he feels he is a disappointment and no one will ever love or hire him. Chris spoke of his unsuccessful relationships with others. He also reflects intensity of relationships, at times paradoxically, stating that this recent girlfriend was “the one” and that his brother is his best friend. It is also known that paranoia was something that he dealt with during this time.
(APA, 2013). Borderline personality disorder also often co-occurs with depressive disorders (APA, 2013). People with borderline personality disorder may experience mood swings and display uncertainty about how they see themselves and their role in the world. As a result, their interests and values can change quickly. People with borderline personality disorder also tend to view things in extremes, such as all good or all bad. Their opinions of other people can also change quickly. An individual who is seen as a friend one day may be considered an enemy or traitor the next. These shifting feelings can lead to intense and unstable relationships.
Other diagnoses considered included generalized anxiety disorder, hypersomnia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and histrionic personality disorder. However, there was either not enough information to fulfill the diagnostic criteria (e.g., frequency and duration) of these disorders (Nolen-Hoeksema & Marroquin, 2017), or the symptoms were better explained by the given diagnoses (APA, 2013). This is where I would consider understanding more with education. I find that the way Chris spoke was something that should be noted. Chris spoke as if he still was in a child’s state although it is clear he was an adult. The reactions of his feelings were expressed childlike. This showed vulnerability in some way. Additional information this counselor-in-training would want to ask the client would focus on his strengths (Argosy, 2018). For example, how does his faith interact with his feelings of depression; what coping skills did he employed during the last depressive episode three years ago? Additional information regarding etiology would include questions concerning what was happening, or what stressors was he dealing with, at the beginning of this and the previous depressive episode.
According to his biopsychosocial assessment at intake (Argosy, 2018), Chris’ highest domain scores on the CCSM-1 (Argosy, 2018; APA, 2013) were rated mild or greater in the domains of depression, anxiety, sleep problems, repetitive thoughts or actions, and personality functioning. His highest score in the domain of suicidal ideation was above slight; the highest score was (3) moderate. Each of these ratings suggest that additional inquiry and follow-ups may be necessary to determine if a more detailed assessment is warranted in these domains (APA, 2013). Detailed follow-up assessments may include the adult Level 2 crosscutting symptom measures (CCSM-2; Argosy, 2018; APA, 2013)
in the domains of Depression, Anxiety, Sleep Disturbance, and Repetitive Thoughts and Behaviors. Chris’ average general disability score on the WHODAS 2.0 was determined by dividing his raw overall score (73) by the number of items in the WHODAS 2.0 (36; APA, 2013). This calculation determined Chris’ average general disability score to indicate mild (2) disability (APA, 2013).
Cultural factors assessed during this diagnostic process include substantial cultural differences in how major depressive disorder is expressed by the individual (APA, 2013; Nolen-Hoeksema & Marroquin, 2017)). Somatic symptoms are often reported in many cultures; insomnia and fatigue are the most often reported across cultures (APA, 2013). Considering gender (Nolen-Hoeksema & Marroquin, 2017), the counselor would have to consider that, while the risk for suicide attempts is higher for women, the risk of suicide completion is highest for men (APA, 2013).
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association Publishing.
Argosy University Online. (2018). Diagnosis and treatment of behavioral and emotional disorders: Module 2. Retrieved from https://myclasses.argosy.edu
Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Marroquin, B. (2017). Abnormal Psychology, 7th Edition. [Argosy University]. Retrieved from https://digitalbookshelf.argosy.edu/#/books/1260520749/
The news reported yesterday that a twenty-nine year old woman had been found missing. Her name was Tammy Walker; Tammy was a very successful woman who had her life together. She was getting ready to get married and had talked many times with her mother Catherine Walker of having kids with her wonderful fiancée. A detective John Smith was on the case and wanted to know what the hell had happened to Tammy. Tammy was liked by many, she was attractive, smart, and was consider a beautiful dark haired, brown eyed beauty. The town Tammy grew up in was devastated and wanted answers to this awful crime.
John went to each family member of Tammy; John wanted to get as much information on the victim as possible. The first person in question was Tammy’s Fiancée Jim Fields. John made his way to the door and knocked aggressively. When the door opened, John was greeted by an older woman who was later discovered to be Jim’s Mother Rachael Fields. Jim’s Mother invited John in and asked him if he wanted something to drink. John agreed and thanked the woman for letting him speak with her family on this awful tragedy.
Rachael yelled for her son Jim to meet John, and to give any information he had on Tammy’s whereabouts. John could tell that Jim was nervous and seemed to be shaken up with what had happened. John asked Jim “Where were you on the night that Tammy went missing”? Jim replied “I seen her yesterday night after we went to dinner, I made sure she was inside before pulling out of her drive way. John then asked “Did you not walk her inside?” Jim said rudely “Tammy and I had a fight and she demanded that I leave her house”. Jim also mentioned that when he left her she was fine. John stared closely at Jim and noticed he was acting strange as if he was being watched by someone. Jim then asked if he was done with questions, he explained that he had something’s to do. John nodded in agreement and made sure to let Jim know he would be watched. John also made it clear that leaving town was not an option.
Jim ran back upstairs and Rachael asked John if there was anything she could do. John suggested that if she heard anything else to reach him at the police department. John walked out with concern and went home for the night. When John arrived home he went inside grabbed a beer while staring at his old wedding photo on his refrigerator. John stared with grief having a flash back of the night his wife was stabbed to death by a robber. John sobbed and fell backwards on the couch not waking up till morning. John heard the loud sound of his alarm clock as he struggles to get up off the couch with a terrible headache. He threw the clock on the floor and grabbed two aspirins out the bathroom cabinet and washed it down with a bud light.
John’s partner Ray called to let him know that he needed to see him at the station. John hung up the phone got dressed and headed to the police station. When John arrived, Ray mentioned that he had some important information to share about the Walker case. John was attentive waiting to see what Ray had to give. Ray threw a bag which contained a pair of panties, a note with fancy writing, and dark red lipstick. John was confused and wanted to know where the items were recovered. Ray mentioned that he found them in an alley at a gentlemen’s club. The club was only a few blocks from where Tammy Walker lived. All the evidence was taken to the lab to see who it belonged too. Ray assured John that it would be at least 24 hours before he had any information on the items.
Later that night John went to the club; he saw many women dancing on poles and taking men back for one on one pleasure. As John approached the bar he recognized Jim Fields speaking and kissing on another young woman. John approached and asked Jim how he was doing. Jim got annoyed and felt awkward and said he was fine. John watched the two as they fondled each other and proceeded to head back in a private room. John faced the bar and asked the bartender to make him a scotch. He took a drink and started to express to the bartender he was looking for a woman named Tammy Walker. The bar tender said he knew her but was not sure where she was. He mentioned she had not been to the club in a month.
John asked the bartender to make sure to reach him if he found out any more information. The bartender agreed and continued serving his customers. John went home late that night drinking his usual beer. He laid down to rest and woke up to the sounds of sirens down the street. John jump up with a stagger and grabbed his pants and ran outside without a shirt. He began to run closer to the ambulance to see what had happened. He noticed that there was a body bag rolling out of the nearby alley. Before the police could place it in the vehicle, John demanded to see the body showing his badge.
When the bag opened John saw the face of the woman who was with Jim Fields in the gentlemen’s club. John immediately went to Jim’s house and demanded to speak with him. Jim’s Mom came down in panic wanting to know what was going on. John expressed that he saw a woman dead that was with Jim last night at a club. Rachael replied “Oh my lord!” Jim came down stairs wanting to know what was going on. John got in Jims face as he punched him saying “you bastard! What did you do?” Jim screamed “Nothing!” as he was bleeding from his nose; I didn’t do anything man what are you talking about Jim stated. John yelled “There is a woman that is dead and your ass was the man with her”. Jim constantly expressed it wasn’t me man I left the club early last night around 11 pm ask anyone there. That chick I was with doesn’t leave work till 3am.
John got close in Jims face as Jim covered his head, John stated “Your story better be legit or your ass is mine” After John ran out the house and drove to the police station. When john arrived his lieutenant said loudly “John where have you been and you look like shit!” John said “I need a warrant this asshole Jim killed Tammy and I know he killed the girl we found this morning”. Ray jumped in and asked “how do you know man?” John stated that he knew and he wanted a warrant to shut his ass down. Ray tried to calm ray down but it didn’t work. John was then demanded by his boss to go home. He was told that his behavior was outright inappropriate and he needed to blow off steam.
John was pissed and flipped over his desk and took off outside the police station. Everyone in the police station was wondering what was going on with John. They could not believe that he was acting this way. Later that night, John sat outside the Fields house watching everything that moved. Jim became annoyed and told his mom to cut off all the lights for bed. Jim rushed outside and asked John to leave his residence. John replied “I will stay here until you are in jail” Jim was pissed and said as he was running in the house your wrong man you will see.
That next morning Jim woke up in his car as he watched another slender attractive young woman at the Fields door. John stepped out to watch from a distance. Jim greeted the young woman and offered her to come in. Before Jim closed the door he saw John standing out front, and felt the need to give John the finger as he slammed the door. Shortly after, Rachael fields came out to work in her garden. John decides to greet her while she works; “Hi John” Rachael said; John explained that he needed to know if she knew anything about her son that she did not disclose. Rachael swore she had no clue and was wondering if he could help her with something she discovered. John became extremely attentive and wondered what she could have wanted. Rachael then said “I found some rat traps near my home can you grab them. With disappointment he agreed and took a trash bag to pick up the traps. After working she offered John something to eat. When john got inside he washed his hands and sat at the table.
John explained to Rachael that she needed to be careful because he believed that her son was a cold blooded killer. Rachael laughed and said “You silly goose my Jim couldn’t hurt a fly!” John said “ma’am you can never be too sure of what a man can do”. Rachael brought John a plate of food and a tall glass or juice. He ate and they continued talking. Rachael said to john “I am going to be straight with you, I know my son would never hurt anyone it’s just not in his blood. John started to feel faint as Rachael spoke on her son. In a weird faint voice John asked Rachael “how do you know he is not a killer” Rachael laughed out loud and said “I know because I killed the women you are looking for”. After John heard the last words his head hit the table he was knocked out cold.
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Jaquetta Stevens PhD.